Friday, January 29, 2010

Peking University

Peking University (simplified Chinese: 北京大学; traditional Chinese: 北京大學; pinyin: Běijīng Dàxué), colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, Běidà), is a major research university located in Beijing, China. It is the first formally established modern research university in and the first national university of China. It was founded as Imperial Capital University in 1898 as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn)[1]. By 1920 it had become a center for progressive thought. Today, most national and international rankings frequently place Peking University as one of the best universities in China.[2][3][4][5][6] In addition to its academics, Peking University is especially renowned for the beauty of its traditional Chinese architecture at its campus grounds.[7]

Throughout its history, the university has distinguished itself from its peers in terms of intellectual freedom and has produced and hosted many of modern China's top thinkers, including Lu Xun, Mao Zedong, Hu Shih, Li Dazhao, Gu Hongming, and Chen Duxiu[8]. Peking University was influential in the birth of China's New Culture Movement, May Fourth Movement, the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989 and many other significant events.[9]


Peking University was established in Beijing in December 1898 during the Hundred Days Reform and was originally known as the Imperial Capital University (simplified Chinese: 京师大学堂; traditional Chinese: 京師大學堂; pinyin: Jīngshī Dàxuétáng) to replace the ancient Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn). In 1902, the Imperial Capital University's Faculty of Education was spun off to become today's Beijing Normal University, the best teacher's college in China. In 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, the Imperial University was renamed National Peking University (simplified Chinese: 国立北京大学; traditional Chinese: 國立北京大學). The famous scholar Cai Yuanpei was appointed president on January 4, 1917, and helped transform the university into the country's largest institution of higher learning, with 14 departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students. Cai, inspired by the German model of academic freedom, recruited an intellectually diverse faculty that included Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, and Lu Xun. In 1919, students of Peking University formed the bulk of the protesters of the May Fourth Movement. Efforts by the Beiyang government to end the protests by sealing off the Peking University campus led to Cai's resignation. In 1920, Peking University became the second Chinese university to accept female students, after Nanjing University.

After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 (and the resulting expansion of Japanese territorial control in east China), Peking University moved to Changsha and formed the Changsha Temporary University along with Tsinghua University and Nankai University. In 1938, the three schools moved again, this time to Kunming, and formed the National Southwestern Associated University. In 1946, after World War II, Peking University moved back to Beijing. At that time, the university comprised six schools (Arts, Science, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Agriculture), and a research institute for humanities. The total student enrollment grew up to 3,000.

In 1952, three years after the People's Republic of China was established, Yenching University was merged into Peking University and Peking University lost its "national" appellation to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In 1952 Peking University moved from downtown Beijing to the former Yenching campus. The first disturbances of the Cultural Revolution began at Peking University in 1966; education there ceased between 1966 and 1970.
In 2000, Beijing Medical University was merged into Peking University and became the Peking University Health Science Campus. Beida now has eight affiliated hospitals and 12 teaching hospitals.
In 2001, Peking University set up a satellite campus in Shenzhen. The university's second business school was launched on this campus in 2004, and was renamed Beida HSBC School of Business in 2008.


Most national and international rankings of Chinese universities place Peking University amongst top universities in China[2][3][4][5][6]. The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2006 ranked Peking University as the 14th best university in the world, taking the highest spot in Asia;[10][11] the same ranking in 2007 placed the University at 36th,[12] and in 2008, it was ranked at the 50th.[13] Human Resources & Labor Review published in Chasecareer Network, ranked the university 41st internationally for 2009.[14] The Academic Ranking of World Universities 2008 placed the University between 201 and 300.[15]

Peking University is a national key university 全国重点大学. The University consists of 30 colleges and 12 departments, with 93 specialties for undergraduates, 2 specialties for the second Bachelor's degree, 199 specialties for Master's degree candidates and 173 specialties for Doctoral candidates. While in a leading position of basic sciences research and teaching, the university has gained itself very successful development of applied sciences.

At present, Peking university has 216 research institutions and research centres, including 2 national engineering research centres, 81 key national disciplines, 12 national key laboratories. With 4.5 million holdings, the university library is the largest of its kind in Asia.[16]
The university has made an effort to combine the research on fundamental scientific issues with the training of personnel with high level specialized knowledge and professional skill as demanded by the country's modernization.
Peking University has been becoming a center for teaching and research, consisting of diverse branches of learning such as pure and applied sciences, social sciences and the humanities, and sciences of management and education.
Over the past century, more than 400 Peking University alumni had become presidents of other major Chinese universities, including former Tsinghua President Luo Jialun, Renmin University President Yuan Baohua, Zhejiang University President Qian Sanqiang, Fudan University President Zhang Zhirang, Nankai University President Teng Weizao, Chinese University of Science and Technology President Guan Weiyan and many others.[17]

Campus, art and culture

The campus of Peking University was originally located north of Forbidden City in the center of Beijing, and was later moved to the former campus of Yenching University in 1952. The current campus is located in northwest Beijing, in the Haidian district, which was concentrated with many well known colleges and universities.
The Peking University's campus site is also situated near the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace; the area is traditionally where many of Beijing's most renowned gardens and palaces were built.

The university campus is located in the former site of Qing Dynasty royal gardens and it retains traditional Chinese-style landscaping including traditional houses, gardens, pagodas as well as many notable historical buildings and structures. There are several gates that lead into campus - East, West and South gates, with the West Gate being the most well known for the painted murals on its ceiling. The Peking University is known throughout China, along with its neighbour, Tsinghua University, for their beautiful campuses. The university campus is surrounded by the Weiming lake.
The university also contains many museums, such as the "Museum of University History" and the "Arthur M. Sackler Museum of Art and Archaeology".[18] Notable items in these museums include funerary objects that were excavated in Beijing and date back thousands of years from the graves of royalties of the Warring States period. There are ritual pottery vessels as well as elaborate pieces of jewelry on display. There are also bones of human remains set up in the traditional burial style of that period.[18]
Beyond its main campus, Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) is located in Xue Yuan Rd. where the country's most distinguished colleges are located. The PKUHSC's campus is less aesthetically appealing than the main Peking University campus, but is nonetheless a fitting site for academics and research.
In 2001, Peking University's Shenzhen campus, Shenzhen Graduate School, opened its doors. The campus is located in the northwest part of Shenzhen City.

In 2008, the Times Higher Education (THE) ranked the Peking University as the 23rd best universities in the world in arts and humanities; it is also the highest ranked university from Asia in this field.[19] The Peking University was previously ranked as the 18th (2007 rankings),[20] 10th (2006 rankings),[21] 6th (2005 rankings),[22] and 7th (2004 rankings)[23] best arts and humanities universities in the world.
The Peking University is well-known for its contribution to modern Chinese literature, poetry and art, and for the publications of groundbreaking modern Chinese books such as Hong Zicheng's A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature.[24] The Peking University has been participating in many art-research projects, such as the Center for the Art of East Asia (CAEA) with the University of Chicago,[25] and developing the "Peking University, Deptartment of Digital Art and Design" with UNESCO.[26][27] The Peking University also partners with the Stanford University for its Asian cultural studies programs such as "The Stanford Program in Beijing" and "The Stanford-Peking University Summer Program", which encourages Stanford students interested in exploring Chinese language, history, culture, and society to study on campus at Peking University.[28]

National Economic Research Institute

The Director of the National Institute of Economic Research, Professor of Economics of the Peking University and Professor of the graduate school of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences is Prof. Fan Gang. Dr. Fan had more than 100 academic papers published in both Chinese and English academic journals, more than 200 articles in newspapers and magazines and had also published several books.

Justin Lin, the founding director of the institute, is the World Bank's chief economist, the first time the post has gone to a candidate outside Europe and the United States.[29]

International students

The dormitories for international students are located at "Shao Yuan" (Spoon Garden). Every year, Peking University has approximately 2,000 international students studying on campus. Its international students are made up of students from most countries in the world including most of Western Europe, North America, South America, all parts of Asia, Australia as well as many countries in Africa.
In 2005, Peking University and Cornell University signed an agreement formally establishing[30][31] the China and Asia-Pacific Studies major[32] at Cornell, which requires students to spend a semester studying at Peking University while working at internships. One year later, Peking University launched a joint undergraduate program with the Yale University;[33][34] students will spend a semester overseas, living and studying together with the host institute's students.[34] Peking University's School of International Studies also launched joint degree programs with London School of Economics and Waseda University.

Notable alumni, administrators, and faculty

Peking University has produced many notable people, especially lead thinkers in modern China. These include Hu Shi, Li Dazhao and Lu Xun. Beida also has two Nobel Prize winners, Tsung-Dao Lee and Yang Chen Ning, although both conducted their Nobel winning work at Universities in the US. Since the year 1948, 586 Peking University alumni have been selected into the renowned Academic Division of the Chinese Academy of Science (两院院士), overshadowing any other universities in China.[35]
Peking University is the home both to communist, nationalist and liberal thoughts in modern China.[9] Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, all founders of the Communist Party of China, either taught or held offices in the university. Lu Xun, a great contemporary writer, thinker and influential figure of the Chinese New-Culture Movement, which took place in 1919 and sparked China’s anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism march, was also attached to the university.[36] During the Cultural Revolution, Peking University philosophy faculty Nie Yuanzi notoriously published the first Big-character poster. Peking University students also led at the Tiananmen Square Protest of 1989 for democracy.


Hu Shih 胡适- philosopher, writer and the leader of China's New Culture Movement
Lu Xun 鲁迅- writer, a spiritual leader of modern Chinese nationalism
Chen Duxiu 陈独秀- dean of letters, later co-founder of Communist Party of China
Gu Hongming 辜鸿铭- writer, advocate of monarchy and Confucian values. Gu preserved his plait even after the overthrow of Qing Dynasty
Liu Shipei 刘师培 - historian and philosopher, advocate of monarchy and traditional Chinese value
Shen Congwen 沈从文- writer
Qian Xuantong 錢玄同 - linguist
Lin Yutang 林语堂 - writer, inventor of the first Chinese typewriter and a new method of romanizing the Chinese language
Qian Mu 钱穆[37]- historian, philosopher and confucian. One of the founders of New Asia College and Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Liang Shuming 梁漱溟 - modern neo-Confucianist. Liang was most famous for his critique of Marxist class theory, stating that, despite obvious disparities of wealth, Chinese rural society could not be unambiguously classified along class lines. One and the same family (particularly the large patriarchal lineages found in many regions) would commonly have some members among the "haves" and others among the "have-nots". The class struggle advocated by the Maoists would necessitate kinsmen attacking each other.
Ma Yinchu 马寅初 - a prominent population economist, whose New Population Theory was criticized by Mao since 1957 for two decades. Having examined trends of the early 1950s, Ma argued that further population growth at such high rates would be detrimental to China's development. Therefore, he advocated government control of fertility. In 1979, the Communist Party formally apologies to Ma, stating that "erroneously criticized one person, population mistakenly increased 300,000,000".
Jiang Menglin 蒋梦麟 [38]- a prominent education reformer in China and former President of Peking University and Zhejiang University
Xu Beihong 徐悲鴻 - the most famous Chinese artist, dean of Beida School of Arts, President of the Central Academy of Fine Arts and chairman of the Chinese Artists' Association.
Ta-You Wu 吴大猷: the "Father of Chinese Physics". His many illustrious students include Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1957, Yuan Tseh Lee, the co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1986.
Yu Dafu 郁達夫 - modern Chinese short story writer and poet, author of Ch'en-lun "Sinking" (1921)
Wang Xiaobo 王小波 - writer
He Weifang 贺卫方 - judicial reformist
Wang Tieya 王鐵崖 - jurist, Judge of International Criminal Court
Li Haopei 李浩培 - jurist, Judge of International Criminal Court
Fei Xiaotong 费孝通 - researcher of sociology and anthropology; chairman of China Democratic Alliance.
Jian Bozan 翦伯贊 - historian


Cai Yuanpei 蔡元培 - early University Chancellor
Yan Fu 严复 - early University Chancellor
Li Dazhao 李大钊 - head librarian, later co-founder of Communist Party of China



Fan Changjiang - journalist and writer
Feng Youlan 冯友兰 - philosopher[39]
Mao Dun 茅盾- writer and journalist[8]
Xu Zhimo 徐志摩 - poet
Zhang Chengzhi - writer
Zhu Ziqing 朱自清- poet[40]
Dolma Kyab - writer (currently political prisoner)
Jan Wong - writer (one of the first western students permitted to study aboard.)
Qian Xuantong 钱玄同 and Liu Bannong 刘半农 - writers and promotioners of the New Culture Movement[8]
Shen Qing 沈清 - Publisher of Rui, monthly magazine of Financial Times


Michael Halliday - developed systemic functional grammar
Tian Gang 田刚- mathematician
Li Yining 厉以宁- economist
Tsung-Dao Lee (Li Zhengdao) 李政道 - Honorary professor, physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (physics, 1957)
Yang Zhenning 杨振宁 - Honorary professor (at Tsinghua as well), physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, 1957
Justin Yifu Lin 林毅夫 - economist (now the chief economist of World Bank)
Yu Jie - First house church leader to meet an American president (May 2006, meeting George W Bush in the White House)
Yu Min - physicist, Father of Chinese H-bombs
Luo Jialun 罗家伦 - leader of the May Fourth Movement, president of Tsinghua University
Fu Sinian 傅斯年 - educator and linguist; leader of the May Fourth Movement, creators of the Academia Sinica, former president of National Taiwan University
Gu Jiegang 顾颉刚 - a Chinese historian; the founder of the Skeptical school of early Chinese history, known as yigupai; best known for the seven volume work Gushi Bian (古史辨 "Debates on Ancient History").
Ren Jiyu 任继愈 - Chinese historian and philosopher, former director of the National Library.
Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先 - a nuclear physics expert; a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs.
Qian Sanqiang 钱三强 - a nuclear physicist and education administrator; a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs; former president of Zhejiang University
Zhu Guangya 朱光亚 - a renowned nuclear physicist of China, key contributor to China's "Two Bombs, One Satellite" projects.
Zhou Guangzhao 周光召 - expert on particle physics, discoverer of PCAC (partial conservation of axial current), an important step toward the understanding of symmetry breaking; former director of the Chinese Nuclear Weapons Research Institute and president of the Academica Sinica.

In politics

Bo Xilai 薄熙來 - Mayor of Chongqing, Former Minister of Commerce
Cai Wu 蔡武- Minister of Culture
Deng Nan 邓楠- Former Vice minister of the State Science and Technology Commission
Deng Pufang 鄧朴方 - founder and Chairman of China Disabled Persons' Federation
Guo Gengmao 郭庚茂 - Governor of Henan Province
Hu Chunhua 胡春華 - Youngerst governor in China, former First Secretary of the Communist Youth League
Hu Deping 胡德平- vice chairman of All-China General Chamber of Industry & Commerce Party, Secretary of National Association of Industry and Commerce, and vice minister of the Propaganda Department
Li Keqiang 李克强 - Politburo Standing Committee member, First Deputy Prime Minister
Li Yuanchao 李源潮 - Politburo member and Minister for the Organization Department of the Chinese Communist Party
Li Zhaoxing 李肇星 - minister of foreign affairs
Lu Hao 陆昊- First Secretary of Communist Youth League of China
Yuan Chunqing 袁纯清- Governor of Shaanxi Province, Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
K. Natwar Singh - India politician
Chen Duxiu 陳獨秀 - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Zhang Guotao 張國燾 - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Li Dazhao 李大釗 - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Mao Zedong 毛澤東 - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Deng Zhongxia 鄧中夏 - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Wang Dan 王丹 - Leader of the Tiananmen protests in 1989
Fang Lizhi 方励之- Spiritual leader of the Tiananmen Protests in 1989
Shen Tong 沈彤- Author, Pro-democracy activist

In commerce and media

Among the "top 300 richest in China"[41] 27 graduated from Beida, much higher than any other Chinese university. The second ranking school is Zhejiang University, with 17 alumni on the list .
Li Yanhong 李彦宏 - founder of
Wang Xuan 王選 - founder of Founder Co.
Wang Zhidong 王志東 - founder of
Yu Minhong 俞敏洪 - founder of New Oriental Education Group
Peggy Yu 俞渝 - founder of, the largest online retailor in Chinese language.
Yan Yan -- Founding Partner of SoftBank China
Li Ning 李寧 - founder of Li Ning Group[42]
Huang Nubo 黄怒波 - founder of Zhongkun Real Estate Group
James Jian Ding - founder of Asiainfo, founding partner of Golden Sand River Venture Capital
Yu Liang - CEO of China Vanke Group
Shen Tong 沈彤 - founder and president of VFinity

Former employees

Mao Zedong - staff librarian, leader of Communist Party of China
Bertrand Russell - Lecturer in Philosophy (1920-21)
Alexander von Staël-Holstein - (1918-1937 in Beijing), - Lecturer and Professor in Indology, Tibetology, Sinology and Phonetics


^ Baidu
^ a b China Education Center ranking
^ a b Composite indicator Ranking
^ a b China University Ranking
^ a b University Metrics rankings
^ a b University ranking in China
^ About Peking University. National University of Singapore
^ a b c Peking University - Mingren
^ a b "Peking University". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008-08-21.
^ THES - QS World University Rankings 2006
^ The Top 200 World University Rankings
^ World University Rankings 2007
^ THES - QS World University Rankings 2008
^ [1]
^ [2]
^ Harvard University Gazette - Summers visits People's Republic of China
^ Club Yahoo!
^ a b A destination to be explored
^ "University rankings in the Arts and Humanities".
^ "The world's top universities for arts and humanities 2007". Times Higher Education.
^ "The world’s top arts and humanities universities 2006". Times Higher Education.
^ "The world’s top arts and humanities universities 2005". Times Higher Education.
^ "The world’s top arts and humanities universities 2004". Times Higher Education.
^ "A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature". Brill Publishers.
^ "Center for the Art of East Asia". University of Chicago.
^ Culture: Peking University, Deptartment of Digital Art and Design UNESCO.
^ Digi arts: Peking University, Deptartment of Digital Art and Design UNESCO
^ "Overseas Studies". Stanford University.
^ New World Bank economist is first from outside Europe and U.S. - International Herald Tribune
^ Peking University - Yale University. Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing
^ a b English - People's Daily
^ 北大招生网
^ [3]
^ Baidu Baike - Qian Mu
^ Baidu Baike - Jiang Menglin
^ Guoxue - Fengyoulan
^ Baidu Baike - Zhu Ziqing


Wednesday, January 20, 2010

University of Oxford

The University of Oxford 

(informally Oxford University, or simply Oxford), located in the English city of Oxford, is the oldest surviving university in the English-speaking world[5] and is regarded as one of the world's leading academic institutions. Although the exact date of foundation remains unclear, there is evidence of teaching there as far back as the 11th century[6]. The University grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.[7] In post-nominals the University of Oxford is typically abbreviated as Oxon. (from the Latin Oxoniensis), although Oxf is sometimes used in official publications.

After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge, where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, the two universities also have a long history of rivalry with each other.

Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly essay-based tutorials at self-governing colleges and halls, supported by lectures and laboratory classes organised by University faculties and departments. League tables consistently list Oxford as one of the UK's best universities,[8][9][10] and Oxford consistently ranks in the world's top 10.[11][12] The University is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the League of European Research Universities, International Alliance of Research Universities and is also a core member of the Europaeum. For more than a century, it has served as the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, which brings students from a number of countries to study at Oxford as postgraduates.


The University of Oxford does not have a clear date of foundation. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form in 1096.[7]

The expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris in 1167 caused many English scholars to return from France and settle in Oxford. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to the scholars in 1188, and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the University was named a chancellor from 1201, and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The students associated together, on the basis of geographical origins, into two “nations”, representing the North (including the Scots) and the South (including the Irish and the Welsh). In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. Members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence, and maintained houses for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges to serve as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, and John I de Balliol, father of the future King of Scots: Balliol College bears his name. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford as well as at the University of Cambridge. Thereafter, an increasing number of students forsook living in halls and religious houses in favour of living at colleges.

The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onward. Among University scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of the Greek language, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the Reformation and the breaking of ties with the Roman Catholic Church, the method of teaching at the university was transformed from the medieval Scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered loss of land and revenues. In 1636, Chancellor William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university statutes; these to a large extent remained the university's governing regulations until the mid-19th century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the university press, and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library, the main library of the university.

The university was a centre of the Royalist Party during the English Civil War (1642–1649), while the town favoured the opposing Parliamentarian cause. From the mid-18th century onward, however, the University of Oxford took little part in political conflicts.

The mid nineteenth century saw the impact of the Oxford Movement (1833-1845), led among others by the future Cardinal Newman. The influence of the reformed model of German university reached Oxford via key scholars such as Benjamin Jowett and Max Muller.

Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four colleges for women. Women have been eligible to be full members of the university and entitled to take degrees since 7 October 1920.[13] Twentieth century Privy Council decisions (such as the abolition of compulsory daily worship, dissociation of the Regius professorship of Hebrew from clerical status, diversion of theological bequests to colleges to other purposes) loosened the link with traditional belief and practice. Although the University's emphasis traditionally had been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded in the course of the 19th century to encompass scientific and medical studies.

The mid twentieth century saw many distinguished continental scholars displaced by Nazism and Communism relocating to Oxford.

The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to British politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature. More than forty Nobel laureates and more than fifty world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford.


As a collegiate university, Oxford's structure can be confusing to those unfamiliar with it. The university is a federation: it comprises over forty self-governing colleges and halls, along with a central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor. The academic departments are located centrally within this structure; they are not affiliated with any particular college. Departments provide facilities for teaching and research, determine the syllabi and guidelines for the teaching of students, perform research, and deliver lectures and seminars. Colleges arrange the tutorial teaching for their undergraduates. The members of an academic department are spread around many colleges; though certain colleges do have subject alignments (e.g. Nuffield College as a centre for the social sciences), these are exceptions, and most colleges will have a broad mix of academics and students from a diverse range of subjects. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the central university (the Bodleian), by the departments (individual departmental libraries, such as the English Faculty Library), and by colleges (each of which maintains a multi-discipline library for the use of its members).

Central governance

The university's formal head is the Chancellor (currently Lord Patten of Barnes), though as with most British universities, the Chancellor is a titular figure, rather than someone involved with the day-to-day running of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of Convocation, a body comprising all graduates of the university, and holds office until death.

The Vice-Chancellor, currently Andrew Hamilton, is the "de facto" head of the University. Five Pro-Vice-Chancellors have specific responsibilities for Education; Research; Planning and Resources; Development and External Affairs; and Personnel and Equal Opportunities. The University Council is the executive policy-forming body, which consists of the Vice-Chancellor as well as heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation, in addition to observers from the Student Union. Congregation, the "parliament of the dons", comprises over 3,700 members of the University’s academic and administrative staff, and has ultimate responsibility for legislative matters: it discusses and pronounces on policies proposed by the University Council. Oxford and Cambridge (which is similarly structured) are unique for this democratic form of governance.

Two university proctors, who are elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges, are the internal ombudsmen who make sure that the university and its members adhere to its statutes. This role incorporates student welfare and discipline, as well as oversight of the university's proceedings. The collection of University Professors is called the Statutory Professors of the University of Oxford. They are particularly influential in the running of the graduate programmes within the University. Examples of Statutory Professors are the Chichele Professorships and the Drummond Professor of Political Economy. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes are organised into four divisions, each with their own Head and elected board. They are the Humanities Division; the Social Sciences Division; the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division; and the Medical Sciences Division.


There are 38 colleges of the University of Oxford and 6 Permanent Private Halls, each with its own internal structure and activities.[14] All resident students, and most academic staff, must be members both of a college or hall, and of the university. The heads of Oxford colleges are known by various titles, according to the college, including warden, provost, principal, president, rector, master or dean. The colleges join together as the Conference of Colleges to discuss policy and to deal with the central University administration.

Teaching members of the colleges (fellows and tutors) are collectively and familiarly known as dons (though the term is rarely used by members of the university itself). In addition to residential and dining facilities, the colleges provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members. Colleges have responsibility for admitting undergraduates and organising their tuition; for graduates, this responsibility falls upon the departments.

Teaching and degrees

Undergraduate teaching is centered on the tutorial, where 1-4 students spend an hour with an academic discussing their week’s work, usually an essay (humanities, most social sciences, some mathematical, physical, and life sciences) or problem sheet (most mathematical, physical, and life sciences, and some social sciences). Students usually have one or two tutorials a week, and can be taught by academics at any other college - not just their own - as expertise and personnel requires. These tutorials are complemented by lectures, classes and seminars, which are organised on a departmental basis. Graduate students undertaking taught degrees are usually instructed through classes and seminars, though there is more focus upon individual research.

The university itself is responsible for conducting examinations and conferring degrees. The passing of two sets of examinations is a prerequisite for a first degree. The first set of examinations, called either Honour Moderations ("Mods" and "Honour Mods") or Preliminary Examinations ("Prelims"), are usually held at the end of the first year (after two terms for those studying Law, Theology, Philosophy and Theology, Experimental Psychology or Psychology, Philosophy and Physiology or after five terms in the case of Classics). The second set of examinations, the Final Honour School ("Finals"), is held at the end of the undergraduate course. Successful candidates receive first-, upper or lower second-, or third-class honours based on their performance in Finals. An upper second is the most usual result, and a first is generally prerequisite for graduate study. A "double first" reflects first class results in both Honour Mods. and Finals. Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university. As a matter of tradition, bachelor's degree graduates are eligible, after seven years from matriculation and without additional study, to purchase for a nominal fee an upgrade of their bachelor's degree to a "MA" or Master of Arts. All MAs were members of Convocation and until 1913 all resident members of Convocation were members of Congregation.[15] MAs, as members of Convocation, elected the Chancellor and Professor of Poetry, but recently Convocation has been widened to consist of all graduates.[16][17]

Academic year

The academic year is divided into three terms, determined by Regulations.[18] Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Hilary Term from January to March; and Trinity Term from April to June.
Within these terms, Council determines for each year eight-week periods called Full Terms, during which undergraduate teaching takes place. These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities.[19] Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations).

Internally at least, the dates in the term are often referred to by a number in reference to the start of each full term, thus the first week of any full term is called "1st week" and the last is "8th week". The numbering of the weeks continues up to the end of the term, and begins again with negative numbering from the beginning of the succeeding term, through "minus first week" and "noughth week", which precedes "1st week". Weeks begin on a Sunday. Undergraduates must be in residence from Thursday of 0th week.


In 2005/06 the University had income of £608m, and the colleges £237m (of which £41m is a flow-through from the University). For the University, key sources were HEFCE (£166m) and research grants (£213m). For the colleges, the largest single source was endowments and interest (£82m) and residential charges (£47m). While the University has the larger operating budget, the colleges have a far larger aggregate endowment, at around £2.7bn compared to the University's £900m.[20]



The admission process for undergraduates is undertaken by the individual colleges, working with each other to ensure that the best students gain a place at the University whichever college they choose.[21] Selection is based on achieved and predicted exam results; candidate-submitted written work; school references; interviews, which are held between applicants and college tutors; and, in some subjects, written admission tests prior to interview. Prospective students apply through the UCAS application system, in common with all British universities, but (along with applicants for Cambridge) must observe an earlier deadline.[22] Because of the high volume of applications and the direct involvement of the faculty in admissions, students are not permitted to apply to both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year, with the exception of applicants for Organ Scholarships[23] and those applying to read for a second undergraduate degree.[24]

The decentralised, college-based nature of the admissions procedure necessitates a number of mechanisms to ensure that the best students are offered admission to the University, regardless of whether the college they originally applied to can accommodate them. As such, colleges can 'pool' candidates to other colleges, whereby candidates can be interviewed at and/or offered admission to another college. Some courses may make "open offers" to some candidates, which do not carry an attachment to a particular college until A Level results day in August.[25][26] Since 2007 the colleges, faculties and departments have published a "common framework" outlining the principles and procedures they observe.[27]

Undergraduate and graduate students may name preferred colleges in their applications. For undergraduate students, an increasing number of departments practice college reallocation to ensure that the ratio between potential students and subject places available at all colleges are as uniform as possible. Students who named colleges which are over-subscribed are reallocated to under-subscribed colleges for their subjects. Generally, students from all backgrounds are encouraged to apply as many factors besides academic performance are taken into account during the Stringent Admission Procedure.[28]

For the Department of Physics, college reallocation is done on a random basis after a shortlist of candidates is drawn up and before candidates are invited for interviews at the university.[29] As a result of this, the college eventually offering a candidate a place to read a subject may not be the one he/she originally applied to.
For graduate student admissions, many colleges express a preference for candidates who will be undertaking research in an area of interest of one of its fellows. St Hugh's College, for example, states that it accepts graduate students in most subjects, principally those in the fields of interest of the Fellows of the college.[30] Perhaps as a consequence of this, it is not uncommon for a graduate student to be a member of his/her supervisor's college, although this is not an official university requirement. For graduate students, admission is first handled by the relevant department, and then by a college.


Despite the University's claims that its admissions policies avoid bias against candidates of certain socioeconomic or educational backgrounds,[31] the fairness of Oxford admissions have continued to attract considerable public controversy through episodes such as the Laura Spence Affair in 2000.[32] Oxbridge entrance remains a central focus for many private and selective-state schools, and the lack of a more representative social mix at the university remains a point of national controversy.[33] In 2007, the University refined its admissions procedure to take into account the academic performance of applicants' schools.[34] A study showed that "[a] student in a state school is as likely to go on to a leading university as a student from the independent sector who gets two grades lower at A-level".[35]

Students who apply from state schools and colleges have a comparable acceptance rate to those from independent schools (25% and 32% of applicants accepted respectively, 2006). However, most pupils who are accepted from state schools come from 'elite' grammar and selective schools, rather than comprehensives.[36] About half of applications come from the state sector,[36] and the University of Oxford funds many initiatives to attract applicants from this sector, including the new UNIQ Summer Schools, Oxford Young Ambassadors, Target Schools, and the FE Access Initiative.[31] Most colleges also run their own access schemes and initiatives.

Scholarships and financial support

There are many opportunities for students at Oxford to receive financial help during their studies. The Oxford Opportunity Bursaries, introduced in 2006, are university-wide means-based bursaries available to any British undergraduate. With a total possible grant of £10,235 over a 3-year degree, it is the most generous bursary scheme offered by any British university.[37] In addition, individual colleges also offer bursaries and funds to help their students. For graduate study, there are many scholarships attached to the University, available to students from all sorts of backgrounds, from Rhodes Scholarships to the new Weidenfeld Scholarships.[38] In October 2007, it was announced that Oxford would be launching a fund-raising campaign with a goal in excess of £1 billion. Of the money raised, approximately one quarter is expected to go towards student financial support.[39]

Students successful in early examinations are rewarded by their colleges with scholarships and exhibitions, normally the result of a long-standing endowment, although when tuition fees were first abolished, the amounts of money available became purely nominal. Scholars, and exhibitioners in some colleges, are entitled to wear a more voluminous undergraduate gown; "commoners" (originally those who had to pay for their "commons", or food and lodging) being restricted to a short, sleeveless garment. The term "scholar" in relation to Oxbridge, therefore, had a specific meaning as well as the more general meaning of someone of outstanding academic ability. In previous times, there were "noblemen commoners" and "gentlemen commoners", but these ranks were abolished in the 19th century. "Closed" scholarships, available only to candidates who fitted specific conditions such as coming from specific schools, exist now only in name.
From the inception of the Church of England until 1866 membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from Oxford, and "dissenters" were only permitted to receive the MA in 1871. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required until 1920, and Latin until 1960. Women were admitted to degrees in 1920.



Oxford's central research library is the Bodleian, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1598 and opened in 1602.[40] With over 8 million volumes housed on 117 miles (188 km) of shelving, it is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library. It is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year.[41] Its main central site consists of the Radcliffe Camera, the Old Schools Quadrangle, the Clarendon Building, and the New Bodleian Building. A tunnel underneath Broad Street connects the buildings. There are plans to build a new book depository in Osney Mead,[42] and to remodel the New Bodleian building [43] to better showcase the library’s various treasures (which include a Shakespeare First Folio and a Gutenberg Bible) as well as temporary exhibitions. Several other libraries, such as the Bodleian Law Library, Indian Institute Library, Radcliffe Science Library and the Oriental Institute Library, also fall within the Bodleian’s remit.

As well as the Bodleian, there are a number of other specialised libraries in Oxford, such as the Sackler Library which holds classical collections. In addition, most academic departments maintain their own library, as do all colleges. The University’s entire collection is catalogued by the Oxford Libraries Information System, though with such a huge collection, this is an ongoing task.[44] Oxford University Library Services, the head of which is Bodley’s Librarian, is the governing administrative body responsible for libraries in Oxford. The Bodleian is currently engaged in a mass-digitisation project with Google.[45][46]


Oxford maintains a number of museums and galleries in addition to its libraries. The Ashmolean Museum, founded in 1683, is the oldest museum in the UK, and the oldest university museum in the world.[47] It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Turner, and Picasso, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead, the Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel. It also contains "The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence. The Ashmolean reopened in November 2009, after a £49m redevelopment,[48] doubling the display space as well as providing new facilities.

The Museum of Natural History holds the University’s anatomical and natural history specimens. It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, in the University’s Science Area.[49][50] Among its collection are the skeletons of a Tyrannosaurus rex and triceratops, and the most complete remains of a dodo found anywhere in the world. It also hosts the Simonyi Professorship of the Public Understanding of Science, currently held by Marcus du Sautoy.

Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, which displays the University’s archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the University establish a lectureship in anthropology.

The Museum of the History of Science is housed on Broad St in the world’s oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building.[51] It contains 15,000 artifacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the history of science. In the Faculty of Music on St Aldate's is the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, a collection mostly comprising of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards. The Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in the UK, and the third-oldest scientific garden in the world. It contains representatives from over 90% of the world’s higher plant families. Christ Church Picture Gallery holds a collection of over 200 old master paintings.


In the subject tables of the Times Good University Guide 2008, Oxford is ranked as the top university in the UK with Cambridge as the second.[52] Oxford is ranked first in Politics, Physiological Sciences, English, Fine Art, Business Studies, Materials technology, Middle Eastern and African Studies, Music, Philosophy, and also Education and Linguistics which it shares first with Cambridge. Oxford comes second after Cambridge in a further seventeen subjects. The University then takes three third-places and an equal-third, as well as a fourth, fifth, and equal-sixth place in one subject each.[53]

In the Guardian's subject tables for institutions in tariff-band 6 (universities whose prospective students are expected to score 400 or more tariff points) Oxford took first place for Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropology, Biosciences, Business and Management Studies, Earth and Marine Sciences, Economics, English, Law, Materials and Mineral Engineering, Modern Languages, Music, Politics, Psychology, and Sociology. Oxford came second to Cambridge in Geography, Archaeology, Classics, History, History of Art, Mathematics, Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies. Oxford came second in General Engineering, and third in Fine Art, General Engineering and Physics; fourth place in Chemistry and Medicine; first place in Computer Science and IT.[54]

According to the 2008 THES - QS World University Rankings Oxford is rated 4th in the world, behind Harvard, Yale and Cambridge, making it the 2nd best university in Europe. In the 2009 rankings, however, Oxford had slipped to joint 5th place with Imperial College London, while University College London took 4th place.[55]

Oxford is one of four UK universities that belong to the Coimbra Group, one of four UK universities that belong to the League of European Research Universities, and one of three UK universities that belong to both. It is the only UK university to belong to the Europaeum group.

Notable alumni and academics

There are many famous Oxonians (as alumni of the University are known):

Twenty-five British prime ministers have attended Oxford (including William Gladstone, Herbert Asquith, Clement Attlee, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Edward Heath, Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair).[87]
At least thirty other international leaders have been educated at Oxford.[88] This number includes Harald V of Norway,[89] Abdullah II of Jordan,[88] three Prime Ministers of Australia (John Gorton, Malcolm Fraser and Bob Hawke),[90][91][92] two Prime Ministers of Canada (Lester B. Pearson, and John Turner),[88][93] two Prime Ministers of India (Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi),[88][94] four Prime Ministers of Pakistan (Liaquat Ali Khan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, and Benazir Bhutto),[88] S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka, Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica[95], Eric Williams (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago), Álvaro Uribe (Colombia's President), Abhisit Vejjajiva (Prime Minister of Thailand) and Bill Clinton (the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a Rhodes Scholar).[88][96] The Burmese democracy activist and Nobel laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, was a student of St. Hugh's College.[97] Including Aung San Suu Kyi, forty-seven Nobel prize-winners have studied or taught at Oxford.[88]

Oxford has also produced at least twelve saints, and eighty-six Archbishops of Canterbury, including the current incumbent, Rowan Williams, (who studied at Wadham College and was later a Canon Professor at Christ Church).[88][98] Another religious figure was Shoghi Effendi, one of the appointed leaders of the Baha'i faith. Some fifty Olympic medal-winners have academic connections with the university, including Sir Matthew Pinsent, quadruple gold-medallist rower.[88][99] T. E. Lawrence was a student at Jesus College,[100] while other illustrious students include the explorer, courtier, and man of letters, Sir Walter Raleigh, (who attended Oriel College but left without taking a degree)[101] to the Australian media oligarch, Rupert Murdoch.[102] The founder of Methodism, John Wesley, studied at Christ Church and was elected a fellow of Lincoln College.[103]

The long list of writers associated with Oxford includes John Fowles, Theodor Geisel, Evelyn Waugh,[104] Lewis Carroll,[105] Aldous Huxley,[106] Oscar Wilde,[107] C. S. Lewis,[108] J. R. R. Tolkien,[109] Graham Greene,[110] Phillip Pullman,[88] Vikram Seth[88] and Plum Sykes,[111] the poets Percy Bysshe Shelley,[112] John Donne,[113] A. E. Housman,[114] W. H. Auden,[115] Wendy Perriam and Philip Larkin,[116] and seven poets laureate (Thomas Warton,[117] Henry James Pye,[118] Robert Southey,[119] Robert Bridges,[120] Cecil Day-Lewis,[121] Sir John Betjeman,[122] and Andrew Motion).[123]

Some contemporary scientists include Stephen Hawking,[88] Richard Dawkins,[124] Nobel prize-winner Anthony James Leggett,[125] and Tim Berners-Lee,[88] co-inventor of the World Wide Web.
Actors Hugh Grant,[126] Kate Beckinsale,[126] Dudley Moore,[127] Michael Palin,[88] and Terry Jones[128] were undergraduates at the University, as were Oscar-winner Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck[88] and film-maker Ken Loach.[129] Sportspeople who have attended the university include Imran Khan.[88]

More complete information on famous senior and junior members of the University can be found in the individual college articles (an individual may be associated with two or more colleges, as an undergraduate, postgraduate, and/or member of staff).

Oxford in literature and other media

Oxford University is the setting for numerous works of fiction. Oxford was mentioned in fiction as early as 1400 when Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales referred to a "Clerk [student] of Oxenford": "For him was levere have at his beddes heed/ Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed,/ of Aristotle and his philosophie/ Than robes riche, or fithele, or gay sautrie". As of 1989, 533 Oxford-based novels had been identified, and the number continues to rise.[130] Famous literary works range from Brideshead Revisited, by Evelyn Waugh, to the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman, which features an alternate-reality version of the University. Sir Humphrey Appleby, GCB, KBE, MVO, MA (Oxon) attended the fictional Baillie College in Yes Minister, and The Complete Yes Minister book's introduction, dated September 1919, was written from the equally fictitious Hacker College, presumably named for Sir James (or Lady) Hacker, Minister for Administrative Affairs in Yes Minister and Prime Minister in Yes, Prime Minister, MP for Birmingham South-East.



Annan, Noel, The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses HarperCollins (London, 1999)
Batson, Judy G., Oxford in Fiction, Garland (New York, 1989).
Betjeman, John, An Oxford University Chest, Miles (London, 1938).
Brooke, Christopher and Roger Highfield, Oxford and Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1988).
Casson, Hugh, Hugh Casson's Oxford, Phaidon (London, 1988).
Catto, Jeremy (ed.), The History of the University of Oxford, Oxford University Press (Oxford, 1994).
Clark, Andrew (ed.), The colleges of Oxford: their history and traditions, Methuen & C. (London, 1891).
De-la-Noy, Michael, Exploring Oxford, Headline (London, 1991).
Dougill, John, Oxford in English Literature, University of Michigan Press (Ann Arbor, 1998).
Feiler, Bruce, Looking for Class: Days and Nights at Oxford and Cambridge, Perennial (New York, 2004).
Fraser, Antonia (ed.), Oxford and Oxfordshire in Verse, Penguin (London, 1983).
Kenny, Anthony & Kenny, Robert, Can Oxford be Improved?, Imprint Academic (Exeter, 2007)
Knight, William (ed.), The Glamour of Oxford, Blackwell (New York, 1911).
Pursglove, Glyn and Alistair Ricketts (eds.), Oxford in Verse, Perpetua (Oxford, 1999).
Hibbert, Christopher, The Encyclopaedia of Oxford, Macmillan (Basingstoke, 1988).
Horan, David, Cities of the Imagination: Oxford, Signal (Oxford, 2002).
Miles, Jebb, The Colleges of Oxford, Constable (London, 1992).
Morris, Jan, Oxford, Faber and Faber/OUP (London, 1965/2001).
Morris, Jan, The Oxford Book of Oxford, Oxford University Press (Oxford, 2002).
Pursglove, G. and A. Ricketts (eds.), Oxford in Verse, Perpetua (Oxford, 1999).
Seccombe, Thomas and H. Scott (eds.), In Praise of Oxford (2 vols.), Constable (London, 1912). v.1
Snow, Peter, Oxford Observed, John Murray (London, 1991).
Tames, Richard, A Traveller's History of Oxford, Interlink (New York, 2002).
Thomas, Edward, Oxford, Black (London, 1902).
Tyack, Geoffrey, Blue Guide: Oxford and Cambridge, Black (New York, 2004).
Tyack, Geoffrey, Oxford: An Architectural Guide, Oxford Univ. Press (Oxford, 1998).


^ "A Brief History of the University". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
^ "New Investment Committee at Oxford University". Retrieved 2007-09-30.
^ a b c "Facts and Figures - University of Oxford". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
^ From The brand colour – Oxford blue:
^ Sager, Peter (2005). Oxford and Cambridge: An Uncommon History. p36
^ The first teacher known is Thibaud d'Etampes, not before 1116, for he was yet in France in 1114: Gineste, B., "Thibaud d'Étampes", in Cahiers d'Étampes-Histoire 10 (2009), pp. 43-58.
^ a b "A brief history of the University - University of Oxford". Retrieved 2009-07-15.
^ a b c "The Times Good University Guide 2010". The Times. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
^ a b "The Complete University Guide 2010". The Complete University Guide.
^ a b "The Guardian University guide 2010". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
^ "Top 500 World Universities (1-100)". ARWU 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
^ "World University Rankings". The Times Higher Education Supplement. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
^ 1965. - Handbook to the University of Oxford. - University of Oxford. - p.43.
^ "Colleges and Halls A-Z". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
^ Oxford University Archives: A history of Congregation and Convocation, 3. Nineteenth century reform
^ Oxford University Archives: A history of Congregation and Convocation, 5. The mid 20th century.
^ Oxford University Archives: A history of Congregation and Convocation, 7. The 2000 reforms
^ "Regulations on the number and length of terms". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ Sastry, Tom; Bekhradnia, Bahram (25 September 2007). "The Academic Experience of Students in English Universities (2007 report)" (pdf). Higher Education Policy Institute. pp. footnote 14. Retrieved 2007-11-04. "Even within Russell Group institutions, it is remarkable how consistently Oxford and Cambridge appear to require more effort of their students than other universities. On the other hand, they have fewer weeks in the academic year than other universities, so the extent to which this is so may be exaggerated by these results."
^ "New investment committee at Oxford University". University of Oxford. 2007-02-13. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "How do I choose a college? - Will I be interviewed only at my chosen college?". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
^ "UCAS Students: Important dates for your diary". Retrieved 2009-11-23. "15 October 2009 Last date for receipt of applications to Oxford University, University of Cambridge and courses in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science or veterinary medicine."
^ "Organ Awards Information for Prsospective Candidates". Faculty of Music, University of Oxford. Retrieved 2009-03-22. "It is possible for a candidate to enter the comparable competition at Cambridge which is scheduled at the same time of year."
^ "UCAS Students FAQs: Oxford or Cambridge". Retrieved 2009-11-23. "Is it possible to apply to both Oxford University and the University of Cambridge?"
^ "Open Offer Scheme". Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
^ "Open Offer Scheme". Department of Physics, University of Oxford. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
^ "A Common Framework for colleges and faculties and departments". Undergraduate Admissions Office, University of Oxford. April 2, 2007. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Oxford Physics (February 2008)" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-02-23.
^ St Hugh's College - Subjects accepted
^ a b Working with Schools and Colleges, University of Oxford Gazette, 2006. Accessed 25 March 2007.
^ "Is Oxbridge elitist?". BBC News. 2000-05-31. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Should Oxford discriminate in favour of state school students?". Telegraph. 2006-07-27. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Oxford digs deeper to seek out the best students". Observer. 2007-07-22. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ a b Admissions Statistics 2006, University of Oxford Gazette, 2007. Accessed 11 September 2007.
^ "Oxford Opportunity Bursaries". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Oxford targets bright young things of eastern Europe". Guardian Unlimited. 2007-03-22. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Oxford aims to raise £1bn". The Times. 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
^ "Sir Thomas Bodley and his Library". Oxford Today. 2002. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
^ "A University Library for the Twenty-first Century". University of Oxford. 2005-09-22. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "A University Library for the Twenty-first Century - A new depository". University of Oxford. 2005-09-22. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "A University Library for the Twenty-first Century - New Bodleian upgrading and development". University of Oxford. 2005-09-22. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Completeness of the catalogue". OLIS. 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-04.
^ "Oxford-Google Digitization Programme". Bodleian Library. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Library Partners". Google. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "Support Us". The Ashmolean. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
^ "Transforming the Ashmolean". The Ashmolean. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
^ "Oxford University Museum of Natural History Homepage". Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2007-11-04.
^ "Map of Museums, Libraries and Places of Interest". University of Oxford. 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-04.
^ "About the Museum". Museum of the History of Science. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
^ "University Rankings League Table: Good University Guide". Retrieved 2008-02-11.
^ "Times Good University Guide". The Times. 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
^ "EducationGuardian 2009 Subject Tables". The Guardian. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
^ a b Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings 2009
^ "The Times Good University Guide 2008". The Times. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "The Times Good University Guide 2007 - Top Universities 2007 League Table". The Times. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "The Times Top Universities". The Times. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ a b c d "The 2002 ranking - From Warwick". Warwick Uni 2002.
^ "University ranking by institution". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
^ "University ranking by institution". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
^ "University ranking by institution". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
^ "University ranking by institution". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
^ "University ranking by institution 2004". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
^ "University ranking by institution". The Guardian 2003 (University Guide 2004).
^ "University Rankings League Table - The Sunday Times University Guide 2010". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
^ a b "The Sunday Times University League Table" (PDF). The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ a b c d e f g "University ranking based on performance over 10 years" (PDF). Times Online. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
^ a b "The Independent University League Table". The Independent.
^ "University league table". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
^ "The FT 2003 University ranking". Financial Times 2003.
^ "The FT 2002 University ranking - From Yourk". York Press Release 2002.
^ "FT league table 2001". FT league tables 2001.
^ "FT league table 1999-2000" (PDF). FT league tables 1999-2000.
^ "FT league table 2000". FT league tables 2000.
^ "Oxford Times 1998 University rankings". Oxford Times 1998.
^ "THES - QS World University Rankings 2008". THES. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
^ "THES - QS World University Rankings 2007". THES. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
^ "THES - QS World University Rankings 2006". THES. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "THES - QS World University Rankings 2005". THES. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2009". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2007" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2006" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2005" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2004" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2003" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2007-11-03.
^ "British Prime Ministers Educated at Oxford". University of Oxford. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Famous Oxonians". University of Oxford. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ "Norwegian Royal Family website". Retrieved 2007-07-10.
^ "National Archives of Australia - John Gorton". Retrieved 2007-07-04.
^ "National Archives of Australia - Malcolm Fraser". Retrieved 2007-07-04.
^ "University News (Appointment to Honorary Fellowship)". The Times: p. 14. 8 February 1984. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
^ True Grit, by John Allemang, The Globe and Mail, June 6, 2009.
^ "Mrs Indira Gandhi: strong-willed ruler of India (Obituary)". The Times: p. 7. 1 November 1984. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
^ Sealy, T. E. "Manley, Norman Washington (1893–1969)". ODNB. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
^ "Chelsea Clinton heads for Oxford". BBC News website. 16 July 2001. Retrieved 2007-07-04.
^ "Biography, Nobel Prize website". Retrieved 2007-07-11.
^ "Biography". Archbishop of Canterbury website. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ "Sir Matthew Pinsent CBE Biography". 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ "Lawrence of Arabia". Jesus College, Oxford. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
^ Nicholls, Mark; Williams, Penry (September 2004, (online edition October 2006)). "Ralegh, Sir Walter (1554–1618)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (6 May 2007). "Rupert Murdoch, Once the Outsider". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Rack, Henry D. (2004). "Wesley, John (1703–1791)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Stannard, Martin (September 2004 (online edition May 2007)). "Waugh, Evelyn Arthur St John (1903–1966)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Cohen, Morton N. (2004). "Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge (Lewis Carroll) (1832–1898)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Dunaway, David King (2004). "Huxley, Aldous Leonard (1894–1963)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Dudley Edwards, Owen (September 2004 (online edition October 2007)). "Wilde, Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills (1854–1900)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Bennett, J. A. W.; Plaskitt, Emma (2004 (online edition October 2006)). "Lewis, Clive Staples (1898–1963)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Shippey, T. A. (September 2004 (online edition October 2006)). "Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892–1973)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Shelden, Michael (September 2004 (online edition January 2006)). "Greene, (Henry) Graham (1904–1991)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Eyre, Hermione (14 May 2006). "Plum Sykes: The new confessions". The Independent. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ O'Neill, Michael (September 2004 (online edition May 2006)). "Shelley, Percy Bysshe (1792–1822)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Colclough, David (September 2004 (online edition October 2007)). "Donne, John (1572–1631)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Page, Norman (2004). "Housman, Alfred Edward (1859–1936)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Mendelson, Edward (September 2004 (online edition October 2007)). "Auden, Wystan Hugh (1907–1973)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Thwaite, Anthony (September 2004 (online edition October 2006)). "Larkin, Philip Arthur (1922–1985)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Reid, Hugh (September 2004 (online edition May 2006)). "Warton, Thomas (1728–1790)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Sambrook, James (2004). "Pye, Henry James (1745–1813)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Carnall, Geoffrey (2004). "Southey, Robert (1774–1843)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Phillips, Catherine (2004). "Bridges, Robert Seymour (1844–1930)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Day-Lewis, Sean (2004). "Lewis, Cecil Day- (1904–1972)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ Amis, Kingsley; Loughlin-Chow, M. Clare (2004 (online edition October 2005)). "Betjeman, Sir John (1906–1984)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ "Andrew Motion". The Poetry Archive. 2005. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
^ "Staff profile page: Professor Richard Dawkins". New College, Oxford. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
^ "Anthony J. Leggett The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003 – Autobiography". Nobel Foundation. 2003. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
^ a b "A brief history". New College, Oxford. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
^ "Some famous alumni". Magdalen College, Oxford. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
^ "Famous graduates". St Edmund Hall, Oxford. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
^ "Spring 2005 Newsletter" (pdf). St Peter's College, Oxford. Spring 2005. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
^ Oxford in Fiction: an annotated bibliography, Judy G. Batson


Harvard University

Harvard University 

(incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts and a member of the Ivy League. Established in 1636 by the colonial Massachusetts legislature,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and currently comprises ten separate academic units.[5] It is also the first and oldest corporation in the United States.[6]

Initially called "New College" or "the college at New Towne", the institution was renamed Harvard College on March 13, 1639. It was named after John Harvard, a young clergyman from the London Borough of Southwark and alumnus of the University of Cambridge (after which Cambridge, Massachusetts is named), who bequeathed the College his library of four hundred books and £779 (which was half of his estate), assuring its continued operation.[7] The earliest known official reference to Harvard as a "university" occurs in the new Massachusetts Constitution of 1780.

During his 40-year tenure as Harvard president (1869–1909), Charles William Eliot radically transformed Harvard into the pattern of the modern research university. Eliot's reforms included elective courses, small classes, and entrance examinations. The Harvard model influenced American education nationally, at both college and secondary levels.

Harvard has the second-largest financial endowment of any non-profit organization (behind the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), standing at $26 billion as of September 2009[citation needed]. Harvard is consistently ranked at the top and as a leading academic institution in the world by numerous media and academic rankings.[8][9]


In 1893, Baedeker's guidebook called Harvard "the oldest, richest, and most famous of American seats of learning."[10]. The university was begun in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. The college was named for its first benefactor, British-born John Harvard of Charlestown, a young minister who, upon his death in 1638, left his library and half his estate to the new institution. The charter creating the corporation of Harvard College was signed by Massachusetts Governor Thomas Dudley in 1650. In the early years, the College trained many Puritan ministers.[11]

During its early years, the College offered a classic academic course based on the English university model but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy of the first colonists in New England. The College was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Puritan churches throughout New England.[12] An early brochure, published in 1643, justified the College's existence: "To advance Learning and perpetuate it to Posterity; dreading to leave an illiterate Ministery [sic] to the Churches…"[13] Harvard's early motto was Veritas Christo et Ecclesiae "Truth for Christ and the Church." In a directive to its students, it laid out the purpose of all education: "Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know God and Iesus Christ which is eternall life, Joh. 17. 3. and therefore to lay Christ in the bottome, as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and Learning.[14]

On June 11, 1685, Increase Mather became the Acting President of Harvard College. On July 23, 1686 he was appointed the Rector, and on June 27, 1682 he became the President of Harvard, a position which he held until September 6, 1701. The 1708 election of John Leverett, the first president who was not also a clergyman, marked a turning of the College toward intellectual independence from Puritanism.
In the 17th century, Harvard established the Indian College to educate Native Americans, but it was not a success and disappeared by 1693.[15] Between 1830 and 1870 Harvard became "privatized".[16] While the Federalists controlled state government, Harvard had prospered, but the 1824 defeat of the federalist party in Massachusetts allowed the renascent Democratic-Republicans to block state funding of private universities. By 1870, the politicians and ministers that heretofore had made up the university's board of overseers had been replaced by Harvard alumni drawn from Boston's upper-class business and professional community and funded by private endowment.

During this period, Harvard experienced unparalleled growth that securely placed it financially in a league of its own among American colleges. Ronald Story notes that in 1850, Harvard's total assets were "five times that of Amherst and Williams combined, and three times that of Yale."[17] Story also notes that "all the evidence… points to the four decades from 1815 to 1855 as the era when parents, in Henry Adams's words, began 'sending their children to Harvard College for the sake of its social advantages'".[18] Under President Eliot's tenure, Harvard earned a reputation for being more liberal and democratic than either Princeton or Yale in regard to bigotry against Jews and other ethnic minorities.[19] In 1870, one year into Eliot's term, Richard Theodore Greener became the first African-American to graduate from Harvard College. Seven years later, Louis Brandeis, the first Jewish justice on the Supreme Court, graduated from Harvard Law School.

Nevertheless, Harvard became the bastion of a distinctly Protestant elite — the so-called Boston Brahmin class — and continued to be so well into the 20th century.[20]

Though Harvard ended required chapel in the mid-1880s, the school remained culturally Protestant, and fears of dilution grew as enrollment of immigrants, Catholics and Jews surged at the turn of the twentieth century. By 1908, Catholics made up nine percent of the freshman class, and between 1906 and 1922, Jewish enrollment at Harvard increased from six to twenty percent. In June 1922, under President A. Lawrence Lowell, Harvard announced a Jewish quota. Other universities had done this surreptitiously. Lowell did it in a forthright way, and positioned it as means of combating anti-Semitism, writing that "anti-Semitic feeling among the students is increasing, and it grows in proportion to the increase in the number of Jews… when… the number of Jews was small, the race antagonism was small also."[21] The social milieu of 1940s Harvard is presented in Myron Kaufman's 1957 novel, Remember Me to God, which follows the life of a Jewish undergraduate as he attempts to navigate the shoals of casual anti-Semitism, be recognized as a "gentleman," and be accepted into "The Pudding."[22] Indeed, Harvard's discriminatory policies, both tacit and explicit, were partly responsible for the founding of Boston College in 1863[citation needed] and Brandeis University in nearby Waltham in 1948.[23]

Policies of exclusion were not limited to religious minorities. In 1920, "Harvard University maliciously persecuted and harassed" those it believed to be gay via a "Secret Court" led by President Lowell. Summoned at the behest of a wealthy alumnus, the inquisitions and expulsions carried out by this tribunal, in conjunction with the "vindictive tenacity of the university in ensuring that the stigmatization of the expelled students would persist throughout their productive lives" led to two suicides. Harvard President Lawrence Summers characterized the 1920 episode as "part of a past that we have rightly left behind", and "abhorrent and an affront to the values of our university".[24] Yet as late as the 1950s, Wilbur Bender, then the dean of admissions for Harvard College, was seeking better ways to "detect homosexual tendencies and serious psychiatric problems” in prospective students.[25]

During the twentieth century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Explosive growth in the student population continued with the addition of new graduate schools and the expansion of the undergraduate program. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States.

In the decades immediately after the Second World War, Harvard reformed its admissions policies as it sought students from a more diverse applicant pool. Whereas Harvard undergraduates had almost exclusively been upper-class alumni of select New England "feeder schools" such as Exeter, Hotchkiss and Andover, increasing numbers of international, minority, and working-class students had, by the late 1960s, altered the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the college.[26] Nonetheless, Harvard's undergraduate population remained predominantly male, with about four men attending Harvard College for every woman studying at Radcliffe.[27] Following the merger of Harvard and Radcliffe admissions in 1977, the proportion of female undergraduates steadily increased, mirroring a trend throughout higher education in the United States. Harvard's graduate schools, which had accepted females and other groups in greater numbers even before the college, also became more diverse in the post-war period. In 1999, Radcliffe College, founded in 1879 as the "Harvard Annex for Women",[28] merged formally with Harvard University, becoming the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.

Harvard and its affiliates, like most American universities, are considered to be politically liberal (left of center); Richard Nixon, for example, famously referred to it as the "Kremlin on the Charles" around 1970. Republicans remain a small minority of faculty, and the University has refused to officially recognize the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program — forcing students to commission through nearby MIT.[29]

President Lawrence Summers resigned his presidency in 2006. His resignation came just one week before a second planned vote of no confidence by the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Former president Derek Bok served as interim president. Members of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which instructs graduate students in GSAS and undergraduates in Harvard College, had passed an earlier motion of "lack of confidence" in Summers' leadership on March 15, 2005 by a 218-185 vote, with 18 abstentions. The 2005 motion was precipitated by comments about the causes of gender demographics in academia made at a closed academic conference and leaked to the press.[30] In response, Summers convened two committees to study this issue: the Task Force on Women Faculty and the Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering. Summers had also pledged $50 million to support their recommendations and other proposed reforms. Drew Gilpin Faust is the 28th president of Harvard. An American historian, former dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and Lincoln Professor of History at Harvard University, Faust is the first female president in the university's history.[31][32]

Administration and organization

A faculty of about 2,110 professors, lecturers, and instructors serve as of school year 2008-09,[33] with 6,715 undergraduate and 12,424 graduate students.[34] The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869-1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.

The history of Harvard's color has been contested by Fordham University. Both schools were identifying with magenta, and since neither was willing to use a new color, they agreed that the winner of a baseball game would be allowed official use of magenta. Fordham emerged the winner, but Harvard reneged on its promise and continued using magenta. Fordham, which adopted maroon because of this, claims that Harvard followed suit with its adoption of crimson.[35]

Harvard has a friendly rivalry with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology which dates back to 1900, when a merger of the two schools was frequently discussed and at one point officially agreed upon (ultimately canceled by Massachusetts courts). Today, the two schools cooperate as much as they compete, with many joint conferences and programs, including the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, the Harvard-MIT Data Center and the Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology. In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register in undergraduate or graduate classes without any additional fees, for credits toward their own school's degrees.


Governing bodies

Harvard is governed by two boards, one of which is the President and Fellows of Harvard College, also known as the Harvard Corporation and founded in 1650, and the other is the Harvard Board of Overseers. The President of Harvard University is the day-to-day administrator of Harvard and is appointed by and responsible to the Harvard Corporation. There are 16,000 staff and faculty.[36]

Faculties and schools

Harvard today has nine faculties, listed below in order of foundation:

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences and its sub-faculty, the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, which together serve:
Harvard College, the university's undergraduate portion (1636)
The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (organized 1872)
The Harvard Division of Continuing Education, including Harvard Summer School (1871) and Harvard Extension School (1910).
The Faculty of Medicine, including the Medical School (1782)
The Harvard School of PIPI Dental Medicine (1867).
Harvard Divinity School (1816)
Harvard Law School (1817)
Harvard Business School (1908)
The Graduate School of Design (1914)
The Harvard Graduate School of CACA School of Education (1920)
The School of Public Health (1922)
Harvard Kennedy School of Government (1936)
In 1999, the former Radcliffe College was reorganized as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.
Ina February 2007, the Harvard Corporation and Overseers formally approved the Harvard Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences to become the 14th School of Harvard (Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences).[37][38]


In 2005 Harvard received a large donation from Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal for the development of research programs in Islamic studies.[39][40] The acceptance by Harvard and other universities of this and comparable donations has drawn criticism from some commentators and accusations that the donations are used to spread pro-Saudi propaganda.[41][42]

In December 2008, Harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22% (approximately $8 billion) in the period July to October 2008, which would necessitate budget cuts.[43] Later reports[44] suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure, (Forbes[45] in March 2009 suggesting the loss might be in the range of $12 Billion) suggesting Harvard had lost nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone. One of the most visible results of Harvard's trying to rebalance its budget is by halting[44] the construction of the $1.2 Billion Allston Science Complex that was scheduled to be complete by 2011, which has resulted in protests from local residents.


The main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in central Cambridge and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located in the city of Boston's Allston neighborhood, which is situated on the other side of the Charles River from Harvard Square. The Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of Boston.

Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential Houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the Quad), which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard.
Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and various other student facilities. The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness.[46]

Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College (and now home of the Radcliffe Institute), is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common.

Satellite facilities

Apart from its major Cambridge/Allston and Longwood campuses, Harvard owns and operates Arnold Arboretum, in the Jamaica Plain area of Boston; the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington, D.C.; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts; and the Villa I Tatti research center ([11]) in Florence, Italy.

Major campus expansion

Throughout the past several years, Harvard has purchased large tracts of land in Allston, a walk across the Charles River from Cambridge, with the intent of major expansion southward.[47] The university now owns approximately fifty percent more land in Allston than in Cambridge. Various proposals to connect the traditional Cambridge campus with the new Allston campus include new and enlarged bridges, a shuttle service and/or a tram. Ambitious plans also call for sinking part of Storrow Drive (at Harvard's expense) for replacement with park land and pedestrian access to the Charles River, as well as the construction of bike paths, and an intently planned fabric of buildings throughout the Allston campus. The institution asserts that such expansion will benefit not only the school, but surrounding community, pointing to such features as the enhanced transit infrastructure, possible shuttles open to the public, and park space which will also be publicly accessible.

One of the foremost driving forces for Harvard's pending expansion is its goal of substantially increasing the scope and strength of its science and technology programs. The university plans to construct two 500,000 square foot (50,000 m²) research complexes in Allston, which would be home to several interdisciplinary programs, including the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and an enlarged Engineering department.
In addition, Harvard intends to relocate the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Harvard School of Public Health to Allston. The university also plans to construct several new undergraduate and graduate student housing centers in Allston, and it is considering large-scale museums and performing arts complexes as well. Unfortunately the large drop in endowment has halted these plans for now.


In 2000, Harvard hired a full-time campus sustainability professional and launched the Harvard Green Campus Initiative,[48] since institutionalized as the Office for Sustainability (OFS).[49] With a full-time staff of 25, dozens of student interns, and a $12 million Loan Fund for energy and water conservation projects, OFS is one of the most advanced campus sustainability programs in the country.[50] Harvard was one of 26 schools to receive a grade of “A-” from the Sustainable Endowments Institute on its College Sustainability Report Card 2010, the highest grade awarded.[51]


Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation.[58] A review of the SAT scores of entering students at Harvard over the past two decades shows that the rise in GPAs has been matched by a linear rise in both verbal and math SAT scores of entering students (even after correcting for the reforming of the test in the mid-1990s), suggesting that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased.[59] Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the prestigious honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" will now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.[60][61][62][63]
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education.[64][65] The New York Times article also detailed that the problem was prevalent in some other Ivy League schools.

The 2009 U.S. News & World Report rankings place Harvard in a first place tie with Princeton among "National Universities".[66]. As of 2009, Harvard has been ranked first among world universities every time since the publications of the THES - QS World University Rankings[67] and the Academic Ranking of World Universities.

Faculty and research

Prominent conservative and prominent liberal voices are among the faculty of the various schools, such as Martin Feldstein, Harvey Mansfield, Greg Mankiw, Baroness Shirley Williams, and Alan Dershowitz. Leftists like Michael Walzer and Stephen Thernstrom and libertarians such as Robert Nozick have in the past graced its faculty. Between 1964 and 2009, a total of 38 faculty and staff members affiliated with Harvard or its teaching hospitals were awarded Nobel Prizes (17 during the last quarter century).[68]

Research institutes and centers

Research institutes
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Harvard Clinical Research Institute
Harvard Institute of Economic Research
Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute
Institute for Quantitative Social Science[69]
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies (one of Harvard's 14 schools)
Schepens Eye Research Institute
W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research
Research centers attached to schools and departments
Graduate School of Design:[70] Center for Alternative Futures, Joint Center for Housing Studies, Center for Technology & the Environment
Harvard Law School:[71] Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice, European Law Research Center, John M. Olin Center of Law, Economics and Business
Department of Psychology: Prosopagnosia Research Centers at Harvard University and University College London[72]
Independent organizations affiliated to the university
The Forsyth Institute


Harvard College accepted 7% of applicants for the class of 2013, a record low for the school's entire history.[73] The number of acceptances was lower for the class of 2013 partially because the university anticipated increased rates of enrollment after announcing a large increase in financial aid in 2008. For the class of 2011, Harvard accepted fewer than 9% of applicants, with a yield of 80%. US News and World Report's "America's Best Colleges 2009" ranked Harvard #2 in selectivity (in a tie with Yale, Princeton and MIT, behind Caltech), and first in rank of the best national universities.[74]
US News and World Report listed 2006 admissions percentages of 14.3% for the school of business, 4.5% for public health, 12.5% for engineering, 11.3% for law, 14.6% for education, and 4.9% for medicine.[75] In 2005, only 8.9% of a record of over 22000 applicants were accepted — making it the most competitive year in history.[76] Only the London School of Economics has a higher selectivity for courses in the world.[77] In September 2006, Harvard College announced that it would eliminate its early admissions program as of 2007, which university officials argued would lower the disadvantage that low-income and under-represented minority applicants are faced within the competition to get into selective universities.[78]
The undergraduate admissions office's preference for children of alumni policies have been the subject of scrutiny and debate.[79] Under new financial aid guidelines, parents in families with incomes of less than $60,000 will no longer be expected to contribute any money to the cost of attending Harvard for their children, including room and board. Families with incomes in the $60,000 to $80,000 range contribute an amount of only a few thousand dollars a year. In December 2007, Harvard announced that families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 will only have to pay up to 10% of their annual household income towards tuition.[80]

Library system and museums

The Harvard University Library System is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises over 80 individual libraries and over 15 million volumes.[81] According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and the second largest library in the country (after the Library of Congress).[82] Harvard describes its library as the "largest academic library in the world"[83].
Cabot Science Library, Lamont Library, and Widener Library are three of the most most most popular libraries for undergraduates to use, with easy access and central locations. There are rare books, manuscripts and other special collections throughout Harvard's libraries;[84] Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.

Harvard operates several arts, cultural, and scientific museums:
The Harvard Art Museums, including:
The Fogg Museum of Art, with galleries featuring history of Western art from the Middle Ages to the present. Particular strengths are in Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th century French art
The Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art.
The Arthur M. Sackler Museum, which includes ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art
The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere
The Semitic Museum.
The Harvard Museum of Natural History complex, including:
The Harvard University Herbaria, which contains the famous Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit
The Museum of Comparative Zoology
The Harvard Mineralogical Museum
The Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, is home to the University's film archive and the department of Visual and Environmental Studies.

Student activities

In 2005, The Boston Globe reported obtaining a 21-page Harvard internal memorandum that expressed concern about undergraduate student satisfaction based on a 2002 Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) survey of 31 top universities.[85] The Globe presented COFHE survey results and quotes from Harvard students that suggest problems with faculty availability, quality of instruction, quality of advising, social life on campus, and sense of community dating back to at least 1994. The magazine section of the Harvard Crimson echoed similar academic and social criticisms.[86][87] The Harvard Crimson quoted Harvard College Dean Benedict Gross as being aware of and committed to improving the issues raised by the COFHE survey.[88]

A longer list of Harvard student groups can be found under Harvard College.
The Harvard Crimson is the oldest continuously published college newspaper in America. Founded in 1873, it counts among its many editors numerous Pulitzer Prize winners and two U.S. Presidents, John F. Kennedy and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The Harvard University Band (founded 1919) is a non-traditional, student-run marching band, notable for being a scramble band. The Harvard Wind Ensemble, the Harvard Summer Pops Band, and the Harvard Jazz Bands also fall under the umbrella organization of HUB.

The Harvard International Relations Council includes several famous student organizations, including the Harvard International Review, Harvard Model United Nations, and its Harvard National Model United Nations. The HIR has 35,000 readers in more than 70 countries, regularly features prominent scholars and policymakers from around the globe. HMUN is the oldest high-school-level Model United Nations simulation in the world, having begun as a League of Nations simulation in the 1920s. HNMUN is similarly the longest-running college-level simulation in the world and among the largest in the United States. The IRC has the most members of any Harvard student organization.

The Harvard Lampoon is an undergraduate humor organization and publication founded in 1876. It has a long-standing rivalry with The Crimson and counts among its former members Robert Benchley, John Updike, George Plimpton, Steve O'Donnell, Conan O'Brien, Mark O'Donnell, and Andy Borowitz. This sporadically issued rag was originally modelled on the British magazine of satire, Punch, and has now outlived it, becoming the world's second-oldest humor magazine after the Yale Record. Conan O'Brien was president of the Lampoon during his last two undergraduate years. (The National Lampoon was founded as an offshoot in 1970 from the Harvard publication.)

The Harvard Advocate (founded 1866) is the nation's oldest college literary magazine. Past members include Theodore Roosevelt, T. S. Eliot, and Mary Jo Salter.

The Harvard Salient [12] is the campus's biweekly conservative magazine, whose past editors include many prominent conservative thinkers and journalists.

The Harvard Glee Club (founded 1858) is the oldest college choir in the country; the Harvard University Choir is the oldest university-affiliated choir in the country; and the Harvard-Radcliffe Orchestra (founded 1808), technically older than the New York Philharmonic, though it has only been a symphony orchestra for about half of its existence. The Bach Society Orchestra of Harvard University is a chamber orchestra that is staffed, managed, and conducted entirely by students.

The Hasty Pudding Theatricals (founded 1844) is a theatrical society known for its burlesque musicals and annual "Man of the Year" and "Woman of the Year" ceremonies; past members include Alan Jay Lerner, Jack Lemmon, and John Lithgow.

WHRB (95.3 FM Cambridge), the campus radio station, is run exclusively by Harvard students out of the basement of Pennypacker Hall, a freshman dorm. Known throughout the Boston metropolitan area for its classical, jazz, underground rock and hip-hop, and blues programming, especially its reading period "orgies", when the entire oeuvre of a particular composer, orchestra, band, or artist is played without commercial break, sometimes for several days in succession, to give the station's DJs a chance to catch up on their studies before the semester's final exams.

The Harvard Institute of Politics is a living memorial to President Kennedy that promotes public service among undergraduates by sponsoring non-credit courses and workshops and internships in the public sector.
The Phillips Brooks House Association (PBHA)[89] is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization serves as the umbrella organization for dozens of community service and social change programs at Harvard. PBHA has 1600 volunteers who serve over 10,000 people in the greater Boston area. Notable alumni include Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Roger Nash Baldwin, Robert Coles, and David Souter.

Harvard Student Agencies[90] is the largest student-run corporation in the world, with revenues of $6 million in 2006.[91] Notable alumni include Thomas Stemberg, founder of Staples, Inc. and Michael Cohrs, a Board Member at Deutsche Bank in London.

Harvard Model Congress is the nation's oldest and largest congressional simulation conference, providing thousands of high school students from across the U.S. and abroad with the opportunity to experience participatory American democracy first-hand.

The Harvard Ichthus is the college's first journal of Christian thought, inspiring the founding of over 20 such journals throughout the Northeast through the Augustine Project[92]. It has featured contributions by students as well as notable theologians such as Fr. Richard John Neuhaus, Stanley Hauerwas, Glen Stassen, and Fr. Richard Schall.

The Harvard Chess Club is one of the oldest collegiate chess clubs in the country, founded in 1874.[93] An annual match versus Yale on the morning of the Harvard-Yale football has taken place since 1906.[94] Harvard has won several intercollegiate national chess championships, with alumni including International Grandmaster and two-time United States Champion Patrick Wolff.

Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society is a cooperative bookstore that includes undergraduates on its board of directors.

The Harvard Wireless Club is the nation's oldest amateur radio club founded in 1909. Their radio station call sign is W1AF. "Professor George W. Pierce was the first president, and Nikola Tesla, Thomas A. Edison, Guglielmo Marconi, Greenleaf W. Pickard and R. A. Fessenden were honorary members."[95]


Harvard has produced many famous alumni. Among the best-known are American political leaders John Hancock, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama; Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and politician Michael Ignatieff; Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan, Religious Leader, Businessman & Philanthropist Aga Khan IV; American Philanthropist Huntington Hartford, Colombian president Alvaro Uribe, Mexican President Felipe Calderón;[96] current UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon; philosopher Henry David Thoreau and authors Ralph Waldo Emerson and William S. Burroughs; educator Harlan Hanson; poets Wallace Stevens, T. S. Eliot and E. E. Cummings; composer Leonard Bernstein; cellist Yo Yo Ma; comedian and television show host and writer Conan O'Brien, actors Jack Lemmon, Natalie Portman, Mira Sorvino, Elisabeth Shue, Rashida Jones and Tommy Lee Jones, film directors Darren Aronofsky, Nelson Antonio Denis, Mira Nair and Terrence Malick, architect Philip Johnson, Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave guitarist Tom Morello, Weezer singer Rivers Cuomo, musician/producer/composer Ryan Leslie, Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, programmer and activist Richard Stallman and civil rights leader W. E. B. Du Bois. Among its most famous current faculty members are biologist E. O. Wilson, cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand, critic Helen Vendler, musician Bonnie Raitt, historian Niall Ferguson, economists Amartya Sen, N. Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen A. Marglin, Don M. Wilson III and Martin Feldstein, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield and Michael Sandel, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph Nye, Stanley Hoffman and the late Richard E. Neustadt, scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands
Seventy-five Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the university. Since 1974, 19 Nobel Prize winners and 15 winners of the American literary award, the Pulitzer Prize, have served on the Harvard faculty.


Harvard has several athletic facilities, such as the Lavietes Pavilion, a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams. The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the "MAC," serves both as the university's primary recreation facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports. The five story building includes two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held at all hours of the day, and an indoor cycling studio, three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball. The MAC also offers personal trainers and specialty classes. The MAC is also home to Harvard volleyball, fencing, and wrestling. The offices of several of the school's varsity coaches are also in the MAC.

Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house the women's and men's rowing teams, respectively. The men's crew also uses the Red Top complex in Ledyard, CT, as their training camp for the annual Harvard-Yale Regatta. The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both as a home for Harvard's squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning center for all athletic sports.

As of 2006, there were 41 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships.[97]

Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in their annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply The Game. While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, the Father of Football, Walter Camp (former captain of the Yale football team), suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the state-of-the-art Harvard Stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history.[98][99]

Older than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard-Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools. It is held annually in June on the Thames river in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Today, Harvard fields top teams in several other sports, such as ice hockey (with a strong rivalry against Cornell), squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing. Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003.

Harvard's mens' ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win a NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990.

Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game. Harvard's official athletics website has more comprehensive information about Harvard's athletic facilities.


Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana." While "Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs, and other cheers, at football and hockey games.

Harvard in fiction and popular culture

Harvard's central place in American elite circles has made it the setting for many novels, plays, films and other cultural works.

"The Second Happiest Day" by "John Phillips" (John P. Marquand, Jr.) depicts the Harvard of the generation of World War II.

Love Story, by Harvard alumnus (and Yale classics professor) Erich Segal, 1970, concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard pre-law hockey player (Ryan O'Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of musicology on scholarship (Ali MacGraw). Both novel and movie are deeply infused with Cambridge color.[100] One enduring Harvard tradition in recent years has been the annual screening of Love Story to incoming freshmen, during which members of the Crimson Key Society, the tour-giving organization on campus, make catcalls and other offerings of mock abuse. Other works of Erich Segal, The Class (1985) and Doctors (1988) also featured the leading characters as Harvard students.

Harvard has been featured in many U.S. film and television productions, including Stealing Harvard, Legally Blonde, Gilmore Girls, Queer as Folk, The Firm, The Paper Chase, Good Will Hunting, With Honors, How High,Sugar and Spice, Soul Man, 21 (2008 film), Harvard Man. Since the filming of Love Story in the 1960s the university, until the summer of 2007 filming of The Great Debaters did not allow any movies to be filmed in campus buildings; most films are shot in look-alike cities, such as Toronto, and colleges such as UCLA, Wheaton and Bridgewater State, although outdoor and aerial shots of Harvard's Cambridge campus are often used.[101] The graduation scene from With Honors was filmed in front of Foellinger Auditorium at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Numerous novels are set at Harvard or feature characters with Harvard connections. Robert Langdon, the main character in Dan Brown's novels The Da Vinci Code and Angels and Demons, is described as a Harvard "professor of symbology", (although "symbology" is not the name of an actual academic discipline).[102] The protagonist of Pamela Thomas-Graham's series of mystery novels (Blue Blood, Orange Crushed, and A Darker Shade Of Crimson) is an African-American Harvard professor. Prominent novels with Harvard students as protagonists include William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury and Elizabeth Wurtzel's Prozac Nation. Douglas Preston's ex-CIA agent Wyman Ford is a Harvard alumnus. Ford appears in the novels Tyrannosaur Canyon and Blasphemy. Much of the action in Margaret Atwood's post-apocalyptic novel The Handmaid's Tale takes place in Cambridge, with vaguely-recognizable Harvard landmarks occasionally making their way into the narrator's place descriptions.

Also set at Harvard is the Korean hit TV series Love Story in Harvard,[103] filmed at University of Southern California. American television's fictional Harvard graduates include Sex and the City character Miranda Hobbes; Gilligan's Island's resident aristocrat Thurston Howell, III, played by Jim Backus; M*A*S*H's pompous Boston Brahmin, Major Charles Emerson Winchester III (a graduate of both Harvard College and Harvard Medical School), played by David Ogden Stiers; Dr. Frasier Crane of Cheers and Frasier; and fictional Harvard Law graduates Ben Matlock of Matlock and Ally McBeal of the eponymous series. Ivory Tower is a student-produced Harvard Undergraduate Television show[104] about fictional Harvard students.

The university was prominently featured in the 2008 television series pilot for Fringe and in the television program Gossip Girl during the second series. The university and several of its buildings are featured prominently in the 2009 bestselling novel The Physick Book of Deliverance Dane by Katherine Howe.
Professors Dr. Richard Alpert, later known as Ram Dass, and Dr. Timothy Leary were fired from Harvard in May 1963. Popular opinion attributes their discharge to their activism involving psychedelics, and the popularization and dispensation of psilocybin to students.[105]

Mariah Carey in her 2009 song “Up Out My Face” sings: "Even the Harvard University graduating class of 2010 couldn't put us back together again."[106]

The 1948 Dr Suess book Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose remarks on "Harvard Club Wall"

Further reading

Hoerr, John, We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard; Temple University Press, 1997, ISBN 1-56639-535-6
John T. Bethell, Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-674-37733-8
Harry R. Lewis, Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education (2006) ISBN 1586483935
John Trumpbour, ed., How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire, Boston: South End Press, 1989, ISBN 0-89608-283-0
Story, R. The Forging of an Aristocracy: Harvard and the Boston Upper Class,1800-1870, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1981


^ Appearing as it does on the coat of arms itself, Veritas is not a motto in the usual heraldic sense. Properly speaking, rather, the motto is Christo et Ecclesiae ("for Christ and the church") which appears in impressions of the university's seal; but this legend is otherwise not used today, while 'veritas' has widespread currency as a de facto university motto. [1]
^ a b An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which initially convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. In 1936, Harvard's multi-day tercentenary celebration considered September 18 to be the 300-year anniversary of the founding. (The bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836, apparently ignoring the calendar change; and the tercentenary celebration began by opening a package sealed by Josiah Quincy at the bicentennial). Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). History of Harvard University. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co.., p. 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday". Time Magazine. 1936-09-28. Retrieved 2006-09-08.: "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1937 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (2003-09-02). "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History". Harvard University. Retrieved 2006-09-15., "Sept. 8, 1836 - Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on the 8th of September, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836."
^ Hechinger, John (September 11, 2009). "Harvard, Yale Are Big Losers in 'The Game' of Investing". The Wall Street Journal: p. A1. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
^ Office of Institutional Research. (2009). "Faculty". Harvard University Fact Book. (“Unduplicated, Paid Instructional Faculty Count: 2,107.  Unduplicated instructional faculty count … is the most appropriate count for general reporting purposes.”)
^ Harvard University Office of the Provost: Faculties and Allied Institutions
^ (See: Harvard Corporation)Rudolph, Frederick (1990) [1961]. The American College and University. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0820312843. With regard to age, several institutions founded in the mid-1700s have a difference of opinion over relative position, but none today explicitly challenges Harvard's "oldest" position. One possible challenger is Georgetown University, whose founding date is debated. In the past, the university had taken 1634 as the date of its foundation (two years before that of Harvard),[2] this being the year that Jesuit education began on the site.[3] [4] It was not until 1789, however, the founding date currently recognized by the university, that the name Georgetown was taken for the institution. Another potential claimant, the College of William and Mary, describes itself, and is described by supporters, as "America's second-oldest college" and gives its year of "founding" as 1693[5]. A page of its website states, "The College of William & Mary... was the first college planned for the United States. Its roots go back to the College proposed at Henrico in 1619...." but notes that "The College is second only to Harvard University in actual operation."[6]. See Henricus for the University of Henrico, and Colonial colleges for a summary of relevant institutional dates. Unqualified characterizations of Harvard as "oldest" abound. The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica article on Harvard University which opens with the line "HARVARD UNIVERSITY, the oldest of American educational institutions" (Volume 13, HAR-HUR, p. 38; also [7]). Baedeker's United States, in 1893 called Harvard "the oldest... of American seats of learning." Harvard's own choice of words is "Harvard University... is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States."[8], thus recognizing the fact that fifteen universities existed in the Spanish dominions in the Americas, from Mexico to Cordoba in Argentina and Santiago in Chile.
^ "John Harvard (British minister)". Enyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2009-07-17. "he directed that half his money, along with his collection of classical and theological literature, be given to a school recently created...Harvard's gift assured its continued operation"
^ "The world's top 100 universities listed". Guardian (UK) 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
^ "World's Best Universities: Top 200". USN 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
^ Baedeker, Karl (1971) [1893]. The United States, with an Excursion into Mexico: A Handbook for Travellers. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-306-71341-1.
^ The Harvard Guide: The Early History of Harvard University
^ Harvard guide intro
^ Anonymous, New Englands First Fruit, (London, 1643), p. 23 (1865 facsimile).
^ "Anonymous, New Englands First Fruit, (London, 1643), p. 26 (1865 facsimile).
^ Ceremony Honors Early Indian Students, Mass Moments (a newsletter of the Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities), May 3, 1997. Accessed on line October 22, 2007.
^ Baltzell, D. E. & Schneiderman, H. G. (1994). Judgment and Sensibility: Religion and Stratification." Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1-56000-048-1. The material cited is a review of a book by Ronald Story (1980), The Forging of an Aristocracy: Harvard and the Boston Upper Class, 1800-1870, Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 0-8195-5044-2.
^ Story, R. (1980). The Forging of an Aristocracy: Harvard and the Boston Upper Class, 1800-1870. Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 0-8195-5044-2 (p. 50: Harvard's explosive growth from 1800 to 1850 separate it from other colleges)
^ Story, R. (1980). op. cit. p. 97, (1815-1855 as the era when Harvard began to be perceived as socially advantageous)
^ Steinberg, S. (2001). The Ethnic Myth. Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-4153-X. (Harvard most democratic of the Big Three under Eliot, p. 234)
^ Wister, Owen (1914). Philosophy 4. The Macmillan Company., p. 23: "had colonial names;" p. 36, "Bertie's and Billy's parents owned town and country houses in New York. The parents of Oscar had come over in the steerage. Money filled the pockets of Bertie and Billy; therefore were their heads empty of money and full of less cramping thoughts. Oscar had fallen upon the reverse of this fate. Calculation was his second nature." 'Philosophy 4, by Owen Wister at Project Gutenberg
^ Steinberg, Stephen (1977). The Academic Melting Pot: Catholics and Jews in American Higher Education. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-87855-635-4. pp. 21-23; quotes full text policy announcement, explains the openness by suggesting Lowell perceived his actions to be forthright and courageous and as motivated by a wish to restrict the growth of campus anti-semitism.
^ Kaufman, Myron (1957). Remember Me to God. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott Co..
^ Levenson, Michael (2006), "Brandeis pulls artwork...." The Boston Globe, May 3, 2006:"Brandeis, a nonsectarian institution, was founded in 1948, by American Jews seeking to establish a university free from the quotas that Jews faced at elite colleges."
^ Wright, W. (2005). Harvard's Secret Court: The Savage 1920 Purge of Campus Homosexuals, St. Martin's Press, New York. ISBN 0-312-32271-2.
^ Malcolm Gladwell. (2005). Getting In. The New Yorker, October 10, 2005
^ Malka A. Older. (1996). Preparatory schools and the admissions process. The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996
^ Associated Press. (2004). In first, Harvard admits more women than men as undergraduates. The Boston Globe, April 1, 2004
^ Schwager, Sally (2004). "Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe". in Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (ed.). Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403960984.
^ Bombardieri, M. (2005). Summers' remarks on women draw fire. The Boston Globe, January 17, 2005.
^ "Faust Expected To Be Named President This Weekend," The Harvard Crimson, 8 February 2007
^ "Harvard names Drew Faust as its 28th president," Office of News and Public Affairs, 11 February 2007
^ Office of Institutional Research. (2009). Harvard University Fact Book 2008-09. (“Faculty”)
^ Harvard University. (2009). Financial Report, Fiscal Year 2009. p. 20.
^ University Colors
^ Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Press
^ "Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences,", February 2007
^ "Dean's Letter on Growth and Renewal of the faculty,", April 2007
^ Saudi Gives $20 Million to Georgetown & Harvard
^ Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal donates $20 million to support the Harvard University Islamic Studies Program
^ Saudi in the Classroom
^ The Saudi Fifth Column On Our Nation's Campuses
^ Hechinger, John (2008-12-04). "Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges". Wall Street Journal: p. A1.
^ a b Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard
^ Understanding Endowments, Part I
^ Biography in the Exeter Bulletin
^ Harvard University Allston Initiative Home Page
^ "Office for Sustainability: History". Harvard University. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
^ "Office for Sustainability: Mission". Harvard University. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
^ "America's Greenest Colleges". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
^ "College Sustainability Report Card 2010". Sustainable Endowments Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
^ Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2009). "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
^ Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2009). "Ranking of North & Latin American Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
^ "America's Best Colleges". Forbes. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
^ The Times (2009). "World University Rankings". The Times Higher Educational Supplement. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
^ "National Universities Rankings". America's Best Colleges 2009. U.S. News & World Report. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
^ "The Washington Monthly National University Rankings" (PDF). The Washington Monthly. 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
^ Rosane, O. (2006). College Administrators Take On Inflated Grade Averages. Columbia Spectator, March 20, 2006.
^ Kohn, A. (2002). The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation. The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 8, 2002.
^ No author given. (2003). Brevia. Harvard Magazine, January-February 2003.
^ Milzoff, R. M., Paley, A. R., & Reed, B. J. (2001). Grade Inflation is Real. Fifteen Minutes March 1, 2001.
^ Bombardieri, M. & Schweitzer, S. (2006). "At Harvard, more concern for top grades." The Boston Globe, February 12, 2006. p. B3 (Benedict Gross quotes, 23.7% A/25% A- figures, characterized as an "all-time high.").
^ Associated Press. (2004). Princeton becomes first to formally combat grade inflation. USA Today, April 26, 2004.
^ Hicks, D. L. (2002). Should Our Colleges Be Ranked?. Letter to [The New York Times, September 20, 2002.
^ Merrow, J. (2004). Grade Inflation: It's Not Just an Issue for the Ivy League. Carnegie Perspectives, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
^ US News and World Report. (2006). National Universities: Top Schools
^ [9]  — A 2008 ranking from the THES - QS of the world’s research universities.
^ Nobel Foundation (2009). Nobel laureates and universities.
^ "America's Best Colleges 2007". Retrieved 2007-03-20.
^ U.S. News & World Report (2006).
^ The Best Graduate Schools 2006
^ Harvard Ends Early Admission, The New York Times, By Alan Finder and Karen W. Arenson, September 12, 2006
^ Shapiro, J. (1997). A Second Look.
^ Harvard announces sweeping middle-income initiative  — The Harvard University Gazette
^ See the FAQ on the Harvard-Google partnership.
^ "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held". American Library Association. 2009-05. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
^ "Largest Academic Library in the World". President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2005. Retrieved 2006-09-16.. However, there is some debate about what constitutes a "single" library: the University of California states that "With collections totaling more than 34 million volumes, the more than 100 libraries throughout UC are surpassed in size on the American continent only by the Library of Congress collection" ("University of California: Cultural Resources > Libraries". University of California. 2004-05-16. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
^ See the library portal listing of archives and special collections [10].
^ Bombardieri, M. (2005). Student life at Harvard lags peer schools, poll finds. The Boston Globe, March 29, 2005.
^ Adams, W. L., Feinstein, B., Schneider, A. P., Thompson, A. H., & and Wasserstein, S. A. (2003). The Cult of Yale. The Harvard Crimson, November 20, 2003.
^ Feinstein, B., Schneider, A. P., Thompson, A. H., & Wasserstein, S. A. (2003). The Cult of Yale, Part II. The Harvard Crimson, November 20, 2003.
^ Ho, M. W. & Rogers, J. P. (2005). Harvard Students Less Satisfied Than Peers With Undergraduate Experience, Survey Finds. The Harvard Crimson, March 31, 2005.
^ "Harvard Student Agencies, Inc."
^ "Harvard Student Agencies, About Us"
^ "The Harvard Wireless Club: 80 Years of History of W1AF"
^ Doug Gavel (2006-07-07). "Alum is Apparent Winner of Presidential Election in Mexico". Harvard KSG. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
^ The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard
^ "History of American Football"
^ Nelson, David M., Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game, 1994, Pages 127-128
^ Rogers, M. F. (1991). Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature. SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-0603-2.
^ Burr, T. (2005)
^ Jampel, C. E. (2004). Ruffling Religious Feathers. The Harvard Crimson, February 12, 2004.
^ Catalano, N. M. (2004). Harvard TV Show Popular in Korea. The Harvard Crimson, December 13, 2004.
^ The Ivory Tower
^ Russin, J. S.; Weill, A. T. (1963, May 28). "The Crimson takes Leary, Alpert to task. (Editorial)". Harvard Crimson. (“He [Alpert] and his associate, Timothy F. Leary, have been as much propagandists for the drug experience as investigators of it.…  They have violated the one condition Harvard placed upon their work: that they not use undergraduates as subjects for drug experiments.”)
^ Carey, M. (2009). Up out my face. On Memoirs of an imperfect angel [CD]. New York, NY: Island. (“If we were two Lego blocks, even the Harvard University graduating class of 2010 couldn’t put us back together again.”)  Cited in Mansfield, B. (2009, September 24). "Review: 'Angel,' while imperfect, flies high nonetheless". USA TODAY.